US officials and controllers of law have predominantly sought-after AI in the space of independent or self-driving vehicles. The Department of Transportation is exploring what components should be considered in drafting guidelines for the utilization of such vehicles, including multi-vehicle caravans, and a few states have received enactment and guidelines taking into consideration the testing of self-ruling vehicles.
“These days, almost every company needs to leverage AI in order to thrive and build a meaningful future,” said Saar Yoskovitz, who is the CEO of Augury. “This is true for younger start-ups, and it is true for the largest companies, even in the most traditional and nascent industries like manufacturing and insurance.
Federal Legislation and Regulatory Action
In the 115th Congress, thirty-nine bills have been introduced that have the phrase “artificial intelligence” in the text of the bill. Four of these bills have been enacted into law. Section 238 of the John S. McCain National Defence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 directs the Department of Defence to undertake several activities regarding AI. Subsection (b) requires the Secretary of Defence to appoint a coordinator who will oversee and direct the activities of the Department “relating to the development and demonstration of artificial intelligence and machine learning.” Subsection (g) provides the following definition of AI:
Defining Artificial Intelligence:
(1) Any artificial system that performs tasks under varying and unpredictable circumstances without significant human oversight.
(2) An artificial system developed in computer software or physical hardware. Any other context that solves tasks requiring human-like perception, cognition, planning, learning, communication, and even physical action.
(3) An artificial system designed to think or act like a human, Including cognitive architectures and neural networks.
(4) A set of techniques, that is designed to perform a cognitive task.
(5) An artificial system designed to act rationally, including an intelligent software agent or embodied robot that achieves goals using perception, planning, reasoning, learning, communicating, decision making, and acting.
In some states, provisions for testing autonomous vehicles have been adopted through executive order or administrative regulation. In Arizona, the governor issued executive orders directing state agencies to devise regulations for the testing of autonomous vehicles. This order was modified in 2018 after a pedestrian was fatally injured by an autonomous vehicle. In this incident, the National Transportation Safety Board found that a combination of the disabling of the vehicle’s automatic braking system. And, a failure to warn the onboard human operator of the presence of an unknown object led to the crash.
AI Regulation in States
In 2011, Nevada adopted the first legislation concerning the testing of autonomous vehicles. The law also sets forth requirements for the testing of such vehicles and directs those regulations to be issued governing their operation.
Across the AI community, there is growing consensus that regulatory action of some sort is essential as AI’s impact spreads. From deepfakes to facial recognition, from autonomous vehicles to algorithmic bias, AI presents a large and growing number of issues. Issues, that the private sector alone cannot resolve.
The American AI Initiative is guided by five principles, which are stated below:
- Driving technological breakthroughs,
- Driving the development of appropriate technical standards,
- Training workers with the skills to develop and apply AI technologies,
- Protecting American values including civil liberties and privacy and fostering public trust and confidence in AI technologies,
- Protecting US technologies, along with promoting an international environment that supports innovation. The Executive Order calls on the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) Select Committee on Artificial Intelligence to coordinate the American AI Initiative.
All executive departments and agencies that are developing or deploying AI, provide educational grants. Regulating or guiding AI are required to adhere to six strategic objectives. These objectives (in summarized form), include promoting sustained investment in AI R&D; enhancing access to Federal data, models, and computing resources; reducing barriers to the use of AI technologies; ensuring that technical standards minimize vulnerability to attacks from malicious actors; training American AI researchers; and implementing an action plan to protect US economic and national security interests.
 ohn S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019, Pub. L. 115-232, § 238, 132 Stat. 1658 (2018), https://www.congress.gov/115/bills/hr5515/BILLS-115hr5515enr.pdf.  https://apps.azsos.gov/public_services/register/2016/3/26_governor_EO.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/RQ7Z-FDNR.  https://www.azcentral.com/story/news/local/tempe-breaking/2018/03/26/doug-ducey-uber-self-driving-cars-program-suspended-arizona/460915002/, archived at https://perma.cc/25GJ-XDY8.  NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD, PRELIMINARY REPORT: HIGHWAY HWY18MH010 https://www.ntsb.gov/investigations/AccidentReports/Reports/HWY18MH010-prelim.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/K7NL-R9SX.  NEV. REV. STAT. § 482A.